SCID - Design Psychology Lab

Researcher

Jan.2018

PROFESSOR_

ROLE_

TIME_ 

加裝型汽車抬頭顯示器之最佳位置研究 
眼動儀設計研究與應用
Best location for Automotive Head-up Display (HUD) Apply Tobii Eye-tracking Device

Automobile

Augmented Reality

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COLLABORATE_

Jie-Hao, Kuo

Chen-Hui Lu, Ph.D.

LAB_

實境技術的發展應用是未來相當具有影響力的趨勢,為了提供駕駛者更多行車安全及便利性等資訊,許多車商與汽車配件供應商,近年大力投入汽車應用擴增實境(Auto-Augmented Reality)發展。而汽車資訊顯示配件中的抬頭顯示器為目前實境技術應用上重點研發的一塊。抬頭顯示器擁有取代顯示儀表板重點資訊的潛力,研究目的了解加裝型抬頭顯示器之最佳擺放位置,以及其對駕駛人的視線及注意力的影響。

 

採用Dual Task的實驗並利用眼動儀追蹤收集數據,使用者進行兩任務:

一 - 不至於受失控的速度進行賽車遊戲。

二 - 觀察模擬抬投顯示器上的隨機數字(數字大於六十,口頭向實驗者報告)。測試三個模擬抬頭顯示器放置位置(賽車遊戲螢幕左中右)影響。位置模擬實際汽車駕駛座位:儀表板正上方、 A柱上、中央控制台上方。最終得到的三位置與無抬頭顯示器干擾的數據、駕駛效率評估與資訊報答率進行分析探討。

 

實驗結果發現顯示器在螢幕左側(模擬汽車A柱位置)比較其他測試結果有相當傑出的表現。模擬抬頭顯示器放在左側的位置比起其他位置更不會造成視覺的干擾。除此之外在駕駛效能之汽車碰撞率與顯示器判讀成功率也比起其他位置更加突出。在本次實驗中抬頭顯示器在螢幕左側(模擬汽車A柱位置)為最佳抬頭顯示器的位置。本研究可供未來汽車應用擴增實境(Auto-Augmented Reality)技術的發展與設計作為參考。

Vision the future, Auto-AR.

The development and application of augmented reality technology is a very influential trend in the future. In order to provide drivers with more information on driving safety and convenience, many car dealers and auto parts suppliers have invested heavily in automotive application augmentation ( Auto-Augmented Reality) in recent years.

 

The head-up display (HUD) in the car information display accessory device is a key piece of research and development in the current real-world technology application. The heads-up display has the potential to replace the key information on the display panel. The purpose of the study is to understand the optimal placement of the add-on head-up display and its impact on the driver's vision and attention.

 

Using the Dual Task experiment and eye tracker to collect data, the user performs two tasks:

 

One - Complete the racing game in a short time and not lose control.

Two - Observe the random number on the analog display (the number is greater than sixty, orally reported to the experimenter).

 

Test three analog heads-up display placement positions (the left, right, and middle of the racing game screen). The position simulates the actual car driving seat: directly above the dashboard, on the A-pillar, above the center console. Finally, analyzed the eye tracker data of three-position and no-head-up display, and involved driving efficiency evaluation and information reciprocal rate.

 

The experimental results show that the left side of the screen (simulating the position of the A-pillar of the car) has a remarkable performance compared with other test results. The position where the analog heads-up display is placed on the left side is less likely to cause visual interference than other positions. In addition, the result of the car crash rate and information reciprocal rate are more prominent than other positions. In conclusion, the left side of the screen (simulating the position of the car’s A-pillar) is the best position for head-up display. This study is available for future development and design of Auto-Augmented Reality technology.

ENGLISH ver.

CHINESE ver.

RESEARCH MOTIVATION

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The development of Auto-Augmented Reality technology is booming drastically, which provide drivers with more information on driving safety and convenience — the earliest operators in this field experiment to take mobile phones or navigation systems’ interception on road images, and then added basic AR display technology to develop products such as AR navigation system or Head-Up Display for next-generation automobile display. In 2012, Japanese company Pioneer took the lead in commercializing Head-Up Display (or referred to as HUD), attracting more car dealers and HUD suppliers to join AR HUD development.

For example, Continental, the world's leading tire manufacturing and auto parts supplier, automobile manufacturers BMW, Hyundai, etc., have successively presented related products and proposed development plans on a related project. In the trend of the automotive experience and digitalize technology, AR HUD, which provides driving information that is more quickly and intuitively interpreted, is expected to possess with high potential in the future.  Therefore, we start from here as a starting point for research motivation.

RESEARCH GOAL

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In response to the development trend of future real-world technologies, head-up display (HUD) has the potential to replace displaying key information of dashboards. Compared with the information function displayed on the original dashboard, the HUD can intercept the essential information that users care about and display it on the window glass while driving. Allows users to get to know the most relevant information more quickly and intuitively. Discussing what location is best for the HUD,    as reference research for future vehicle instrument display and real-world technology development.

RESEARCH TOPIC

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EXPERIMENT MISSION

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EXPERIMENT VARIABLE

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EXPERIMENT DESIGN

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EXPERIMENT MATERIAL

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EXPERIMENT SEQUENCE

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EXPERIMENTAL DATA

- NON-EYE TRACKER DATA ANALYSIS

 There were three subjects in this recruitment, and there were three valid data after the test. The following are the experimental results.

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The figures of the three subjects are close to full marks. The subject's requirements for passing the checkpoint is quite high, and this data representing the driving test is reliable. The user is driving the vehicle purposefully rather than driving randomly. There was no significant difference in the results obtained from the three subjects.

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From the experimental results, it can be found that the driving skill of the subject A is especially good. The data of the four experiments subject A conduct are not much different, which the number of collisions is low. However, the number of collisions between Subject B and C in HUD on the left side of the screen test (simulating the position of the A-pillar of the car) was significantly lower, and the safety performance was higher than other positions.

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From the experimental results, it can be found that the presence or absence of the HUD does not have much influence. The position that under the screen (simulated the position above the driver’s dashboard. ) takes less time than other locations. The most time-consuming is the position that HUD set on the right side of the screen (simulated the center console of the car.)

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The experimental results show that the interpretation success rate on the left side of the screen (simulating the position of the A-pillar of the car) is significantly higher than other positions. Followed by the underside of the screen (simulated the position above the dash- board of the car). The right side of the screen (simulated the center console of the car.) is the worst, which the number is significantly lower than the other positions

EXPERIMENTAL DATA

- EYE TRACKER DATA ANALYSIS

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Without the interference of HUD, the subject focused on the car’s front while playing the racing game. The interested shade is concentrated in the direction of the car and the vanishing point of the track. The subject’s visual center nearly didn’t drift at all, and the focus shade is quite concentrated. The result of this test will be the basis for comparing the other three positional variables.

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The heat map and path analysis of the HUD on the left side of the screen (simulating the position of the car's A-pillar) has significant difference compared to the other two positions. The dwell time at the HUD's position is short, and the path is less distracting than the other positions. The subject is more focused on the front and the direction of the track itself during the game. The path of sight drifts less, and the focus area is concentrated.

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The HUD set on the left side of the screen (simulating the position above the center console of the car) has a longer dwell time and a  fragmented path at the heat map and path analysis map. In order to spend time reading the information on the head-up display, the subjects’ visual focus is drifted to the right side. The sight path is also scattered and the focus area is fragmentary.

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The heat map of the HUD on the under- side of the screen (simulating the position above dashboard) has the longest dwell time at the HUD position. Subjects must spend more time reading information on the heads-up display, thus create intensive sight path and shading area. Compare to the scatter result of setting on the right side, the focus point drifts less; it strongly concentrates on two regions: On the front of the car and the position of HUD.

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

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The heat map of the HUD on the underside of the screen (simulating the position above dashboard) has the longest dwell time at the HUD position. Subjects must spend more time reading information on the heads-up display, thus create intensiveCombining all the experimental results obtained, we found that the HUD which set on the left side of the screen (simulating the position of the A-pillar of the car) has a remarkable performance compared to other test results.

 

In the heat map derived from the eye tracker test record, it can be found that the map without HUD is very similar to the map of setting HUD on the left side of the screen (simulating the car A-pillar position). Most of the tester's attention is concentrated in the front direction and the vanishing point of the track. The HUD which set on the left side does not have a significant impact on the heat map. It can be concluded that HUD position on the left side is less likely to cause visual interference than other positions. In addition, the driving performance and report success rate in non-eye tracking data are more prominent than other positions. In the heat map, HUD which set on the right (simulated the position of the center console of the car) and the underside (simulated the position above the dashboard of the car) of the screen is more likely to cause visual interference comparing to the left one. The data shows that the user spent more time staying on the HUD to read the information. In addition, comparing with the underside one, the right side of the screen has the lowest in terms of driving performance and display interpretation success rate. In conclusion, in this experiment, the poorest HUD position is set on the right side of the screen.

 

Nowadays, the development trend of the AR technology continues to flourish. Compared with the information function displayed on the original automobile dashboard, the HUD can intercept the essential information that users care about and display it on the window glass. Allows users to get to know the relevant information more quickly and more effortless. In this experiment, the HUD setting on the left side (simulating the position of the car A-pillar) is the position of the best location. This study is available for future development and design of Auto-Augmented Reality technology. sight path and shading area. Compare to the scatter result of setting on the right side, the focus point drifts less; it strongly concentrates on two regions: On the front of the car and the position of HUD.

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